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Referendums in the European Union  

Derek Beach

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Referendums are frequently used to ratify European Union (EU)–related propositions. Since 1972 there have been in total 46 EU-related referendums, excluding third-country referendums on ... More

Accountability and Responsibility  

Robert Gregory

Accountability and responsibility are related ideas that are central to political, constitutional, and institutional arrangements in Western liberal democracies. However, political elites ... More

Nationalism and Foreign Policy  

Harris Mylonas and Kendrick Kuo

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Nationalism continues to be an important ideology that informs the way state elites formulate and implement foreign policy. The relationship between nationalism and foreign policy is ... More

Marxism in Foreign Policy  

Benno Teschke and Steffan Wyn-Jones

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The problematic implications of the long absence of a dedicated encounter between Marxism and FPA (foreign policy analysis) are discussed. This absence has been marked by a series of ... More

Role Theory in Foreign Policy  

Marijke Breuning

Role theory first emerged as an approach to the study of foreign policy with the seminal work of Holsti, who argued that decision makers’ conceptions of their state’s role on the world ... More

Constructivism  

Friedrich Kratochwil

Online publication date:
May 2017
Constructivism in the social sciences has known several ups and downs over the last decades. It was rather early successful in sociology but hotly contested in international relations. ... More

Liberalism  

Samuel Freeman

Liberalism in politics is associated with nonauthoritarianism, the rule of law, constitutional government with limited powers, and the guarantee of civil and political liberties. A liberal ... More

Counterfactuals and Foreign Policy Analysis  

Richard Ned Lebow

Counterfactuals seek to alter some feature or event of the pass and by means of a chain of causal logic show how the present might, or would, be different. Counterfactual inquiry—or ... More

Comparative Political Regimes: Consensus and Majoritarian Democracy  

Matthijs Bogaards

Ever since Aristotle, the comparative study of political regimes and their performance has relied on classifications and typologies. The study of democracy today has been influenced ... More

War in Political Philosophy  

Helen Frowe

We can distinguish between three moral approaches to war: pacifism, realism, and just war theory. There are various theoretical approaches to war within the just war tradition. One of the ... More

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