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Democracy in the Crucible of Conflict  

Robert Ralston and Ronald R. Krebs

The field of international relations has long focused on understanding and explaining the causes of war. In contrast, scholars have devoted relatively little attention to war’s ... More

Violence, Politics, and Gender  

Gabrielle S. Bardall

This article presents a conceptual orientation to the intersection of gender, politics, and violence. The first part of the article will introduce the subject by reviewing the primary ... More

How Gender Intersects With Political Violence and Terrorism  

Candice Ortbals and Lori Poloni-Staudinger

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Gender influences political violence, which includes, for example, terrorism, genocide, and war. Gender uncovers how women, men, and nonbinary persons act according to feminine, masculine, ... More

The Effects of Civil War on Post-War Political Development  

Pellumb Kelmendi and Amanda Rizkallah

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Civil war is one of the most devastating and potentially transformative events that can befall a country. Despite an intuitive acknowledgment that civil war is a defining political moment ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Religious Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Time gaps existed in the first three waves between precipitating political events and the development of terrorist activity. But now the time gap has disappeared because the precipitating ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anarchist Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The First Wave of global terrorism began in Russia. After Russia was humiliated in the Crimean War (1853–1856), Czar Alexander II decided to make it more like Western states which seemed ... More

Suicide Terrorism Theories  

Susanne Martin and Ami Pedahzur

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Suicide terrorism has captured considerable attention since the attacks on September 11, 2001. Governments offered unprecedented support for scholars who were willing to research the ... More

The Spread of Conflict in International Relations  

Nils W. Metternich

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
International relations as a subfield in political science has always been fundamentally concerned about the relations between actors and how they lead to conflictual or cooperative ... More

Theoretical and Empirical Approaches to Uncertainty and Conflict in International Relations  

Muhammet A. Bas and Robert Schub

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Uncertainty is pervasive in international politics. This uncertainty can have many sources. Each source has different origins and implications for the likelihood of conflict. Existing ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: New Left Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
By the 1960s the international world changed dramatically. While the nuclear balance of terror created by the atomic bomb prevented war between the First and the Second Worlds, proxy wars ... More

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