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Ecological Modernization and the Politics of Sustainable Development in the Global Palm Oil Industry  

Rory Padfield

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. The ... More

Economic Incentives as Weapons of War  

Katherine Barbieri

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
International relations scholars tend to differentiate between a state’s use of military and economic instruments of power and also between rewards and punishments. In conflict scenarios, ... More

Economic Interdependence and Conflict  

Hyojoon Chang and Scott L. Kastner

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Recent studies on commercial liberalism have paid more attention to microfoundations linking economic interdependence to peace. Using a bargaining model of war, these studies have ... More

Economic Sanction as Foreign Policy  

Yoshiharu Kobayashi

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Economic sanctions are an attempt by states to coerce a change in the policy of another state by restricting their economic relationship with the latter. Between, roughly, the 1960s–1980s, ... More

Effectiveness of Peacekeeping Operations  

Jessica Di Salvatore and Andrea Ruggeri

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Peacekeeping has been one of the main conflict management tools used by the international community to restore or safeguard peace and security. Since 1948, the United Nations has ... More

The Effectiveness of the World Trade Organization’s Dispute Settlement System  

Soo Yeon Kim

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement system is its judicial arm and enforcement mechanism, designed to assist members in resolving trade disputes that arise between them. ... More

Emerging Powers in Foreign Policy  

Leslie Wehner

Online publication date:
May 2017
Emerging powers are usually referred to as states whose increasing material capacities and status-seeking strategies may potentially have an impact on the international system and also ... More

Emotions in Foreign Policy Decision Making  

Rose McDermott

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
There are lots of ways that emotions have been studied in psychology and various ways that their use has been examined in the context of foreign policy. Perhaps one of the most useful ways ... More

Empirical Analyses of Deterrence  

Stephen L. Quackenbush

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Deterrence is an important subject, and its study has spanned more than seven decades. Much research on deterrence has focused on a theoretical understanding of the subject. Particularly ... More

Empirical Evidence for Empirical International Relations Theorizing: Tests of Epistemological Assumptions With Data  

Brian C. Rathbun

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Balancing theory with evidence, in which we form and adjust our theories at least in part based on their performance, might seem to be a part of any social scientific enterprise. However, ... More

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