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The Steps to War: Theory and Evidence  

Andrew P. Owsiak

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The steps-to-war theory maintains that war results from the issues under dispute and how states handle these issues. Its foundation rests on the territorial explanation of war, which ... More

The Strategic Use of State Repression and Political Violence  

Jacqueline H. R. deMeritt

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Repression is the act of subduing someone by institutional or physical force. Political violence is a particular form of repression involving the use of physical force to achieve political ... More

Suicide Terrorism Theories  

Susanne Martin and Ami Pedahzur

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Suicide terrorism has captured considerable attention since the attacks on September 11, 2001. Governments offered unprecedented support for scholars who were willing to research the ... More

Territory and Contentious Issues  

Paul R. Hensel

Online publication date:
May 2017
Territorial issues have been prominent causes of armed conflict and war in the modern era. This observation has led to a rapidly growing body of academic literature on the sources, ... More

Terrorism and Foreign Policy  

Brian Lai

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The effect of foreign policy on terrorism is an important area of research that bridges work on international relations and intrastate conflict by highlighting how an outside country can ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Overview  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Global terror began in the 1880s, but it took a century before a few scholars began to understand its peculiar dynamic. One reason for the difficulty was that many scholars and government ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anarchist Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The First Wave of global terrorism began in Russia. After Russia was humiliated in the Crimean War (1853–1856), Czar Alexander II decided to make it more like Western states which seemed ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anticolonial Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The Versailles Treaty ending World War I established a new international order by creating the League of Nations and, dividing the defeated empires in Europe into a number of ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: New Left Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
By the 1960s the international world changed dramatically. While the nuclear balance of terror created by the atomic bomb prevented war between the First and the Second Worlds, proxy wars ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Religious Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Time gaps existed in the first three waves between precipitating political events and the development of terrorist activity. But now the time gap has disappeared because the precipitating ... More

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