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Citizens and Political Sophistication  

Henrik Oscarsson and Lauri Rapeli

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Civil Disobedience and Conscientious Objection  

William Smith and Kimberley Brownlee

Online publication date:
May 2017
Civil disobedience and conscientious objection are distinct but related social practices that display people’s opposition to specific laws, policies, directives, or schemes. In general, ... More

Civilian Self-Protection and Civilian Targeting in Armed Conflicts: Who Protects Civilians?  

Betcy Jose and Peace A. Medie

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Studies have shown that civilians are often intentionally targeted in civil wars and that civilian protection efforts launched by the international community have not always been ... More

Civil War and Terrorism: A Call for Further Theory Building  

Charity Butcher

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States, terrorism has gained increased prominence in both scholarship and the media. While international terrorist acts are quite ... More

Civil War from a Transnational Perspective  

Kristian Skrede Gleditsch

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Civil war is the dominant form of armed conflict in the contemporary international system, and most severe lethal armed conflicts in the post-Cold War era have been civil/intrastate rather ... More

Civil War Termination  

Caroline A. Hartzell

Civil wars typically have been terminated by a variety of means, including military victories, negotiated settlements and ceasefires, and “draws.” Three very different historical trends in ... More

Clarifying Causal Mechanisms in International Relations  

Patrick James

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Theory and evidence about causal mechanisms, at some point (probably) long ago, reached the carrying capacity for integration into knowledge through expression in words alone. Causal ... More

Cleisthenes (2), Athenian politician  

Theodore John Cadoux and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Athenian politician, of the *Alcmaeonid family, son of *Megacles and Agariste, daughter of *Cleisthenes (1) of *Sicyon. He was archon under the tyrant *Hippias (1) in 525/4 bce, but later ... More

Climate Change in Foreign Policy  

Amy Below

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Climate change emerged in the late 20th century as a topic of global concern and thus a prominent foreign policy issue. Academic scholarship on the international community’s response to ... More

Coalition Politics and Foreign Policy  

Sibel Oktay

Online publication date:
May 2017
Coalition governments are observed frequently in parliamentary systems. Approximately 70% of all governments in postwar Europe have been one type of coalition or another. Israel has never ... More

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