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The Baltic States in the European Union  

Tanel Kerikmäe

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Bargaining Models of War and the Stability of Peace in Post-Conflict Societies  

Margit Bussmann

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A major challenge for countries that emerge from civil war is the stabilization of the post-conflict order in a way that fighting does not break out again. Recent empirical and theoretical ... More

Bargaining Theory, Civil War Outcomes, and War Recurrence: Assessing the Results of Empirical Tests of the Theory  

Caroline A. Hartzell

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Once ended, a significant number of civil wars recur. One influential empirical international relations theory on which scholars have drawn in an effort to provide an explanation for this ... More

Basic Income  

Simon Birnbaum

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The idea that states should provide a means-tested guaranteed minimum income for citizens who are unable to meet their basic needs is widely shared and has been a central component in the ... More

Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decision Making  

Mark Schafer and Gary Smith

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
How do the beliefs of leaders affect foreign policy decision-making processes and outcomes? This question has been central to the study of foreign policy decision making (FPDM), yet it ... More

Brazilian Independence: Change and Continuity  

João Paulo Pimenta

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Stemming from an accelerated and tumultuous process unleashed by European wars in the first decade of the 19th century, Brazil and Portugal split politically in 1822. In a sense, Brazil’s ... More

Candidates and Voting Choice  

Ian McAllister

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The role of candidates in shaping voting choice has generated much research—and at least as much controversy—since modern electoral behavior research began in the 1960s. Much of the ... More

Capitalist Peace Theory: A Critical Appraisal  

Gerald Schneider

Capitalist peace theory (CPT) has gained considerable attention in international relations theory and the conflict literature. Its proponents maintain that a capitalist organization of an ... More

Case Selection in Small-N Research  

Jason Seawright

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Recent methodological work on systematic case selection techniques offers ways of choosing cases for in-depth analysis such that the probability of learning from the cases is enhanced. ... More

The Changing Nature of Political Party Membership  

Susan E. Scarrow

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Party membership has long been an important channel for political participation in many countries. Strong membership organizations have helped parties win elections and stay connected with ... More

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