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Pro-Government Militias and Conflict  

Sabine C. Carey and Neil J. Mitchell

Pro-government militias are a prominent feature of civil wars. Governments in Colombia, Syria, and Sudan recruit irregular forces in their armed struggle against insurgents. The United ... More

Protest and Contentious Action  

Mario Quaranta

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The field of protest and contentious action is massive. Numerous studies have focused on the determinants of such behavior, among which are grievances and deprivations, resources, ... More

Protest and Music  

Sumangala Damodaran

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The relationship between music and politics and specifically that between music and protest has been relatively under-researched in the social sciences in a systematic manner, even if ... More

Public Opinion on Foreign Policy Issues  

Richard C. Eichenberg

Scholars and governments are interested in four sets of questions concerning public opinion on foreign policy and national security policy. First, what do public opinion polls measure? How ... More

Research Findings on the Evolution of Peacekeeping  

Theodora-Ismene Gizelis, Han Dorussen, and Marina Petrova

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Peacekeeping has evolved both in its focus and in setting increasingly ambitious goals. In effect, the referent object of peacekeeping—what and whose peace is to be kept—has changed. The ... More

The Strategic Use of State Repression and Political Violence  

Jacqueline H. R. deMeritt

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Repression is the act of subduing someone by institutional or physical force. Political violence is a particular form of repression involving the use of physical force to achieve political ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon  

David C. Rapoport

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

War in Political Philosophy  

Helen Frowe

We can distinguish between three moral approaches to war: pacifism, realism, and just war theory. There are various theoretical approaches to war within the just war tradition. One of the ... More

Waves of Political Terrorism  

Jeffrey Kaplan

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The wave theory refers to the “Four Waves of Modern Terrorism,” which was published in 2004 by David C. Rapoport, Professor Emeritus at the University of California Los Angeles and a ... More

Women and Terrorism  

Mia Bloom

Women are playing an increasingly significant role in terrorism. As men are progressively targeted by security personnel, using female operatives provides terrorist organizations with a ... More

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