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Arms Buildups and the Use of Military Force  

David F. Mitchell and Jeffrey Pickering

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The empirical literature on arms buildups and the use of interstate military force has advanced considerably over the last half century. Research has largely confirmed that a relationship ... More

Arms Control and Arms Reductions in Foreign Policy  

Harald Mueller

Arms control is a strategy by governments to overcome the security dilemma with institutionalized cooperation. It comes in three versions, arms control proper, with stability as the main ... More

Arms Races: An Assessment of Conceptual and Theoretical Challenges  

Toby J. Rider

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
An “arms race” is a competition over the quality or quantity of military capabilities between states in the international system. The arms race phenomenon has received considerable ... More

Audience Costs, News Media, and Foreign Policy  

Ross A. Miller

Online publication date:
May 2016
“Audience costs” represent situations where domestic audiences impose penalties on leaders for failed policies. This phenomenon has risen to a prominent position in the study of politics ... More

A Unified Analysis of the Diversionary and Constraint Accounts of Crisis Initiation  

Lisa J. Carlson and Raymond Dacey

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The major empirical frameworks for understanding crisis initiation are the diversionary account and the constraint account. Both accounts deal with the influences that domestic audiences ... More

Austria and the European Union  

Paul Luif

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Austria was occupied at the end of World War II by the four Allies, but in contrast to Germany the four powers left in 1955—the condition being its declaration of permanent neutrality, on ... More

Authenticity and Sustainability in Responsible Tourism  

Jane Carnaffan

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Tourism ... More

Autocracy  

Erica Frantz

Dictatorships have dominated global politics for hundreds of years, from the pharaohs of Egypt to the absolute monarchs of Europe. Though democracy has since spread to much of the world, ... More

Autocratic Regimes and Foreign Policy  

Marianne Kneuer

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The foreign policy of autocratic regimes reflects the research interest in the international behavior and decision making of domestic actors in nondemocratic regimes. The regime type (its ... More

The Balance of Power in World Politics  

Randall L. Schweller

Online publication date:
May 2016
The balance of power—a notoriously slippery, murky, and protean term, endlessly debated and variously defined—is the core theory of international politics within the realist perspective. A ... More

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