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Problem Definition and the Policy Process: Wicked Problems  

Brian W. Head

Online publication date:
May 2017
In the early 1970s, Rittel and Webber asserted that conventional approaches to scientific analysis and rational planning were inadequate for guiding practitioners and researchers who were ... More

Process-Tracing Methods in Social Science  

Derek Beach

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Process tracing is a research method for tracing causal mechanisms using detailed, within-case empirical analysis of how a causal process plays out in an actual case. Process tracing can ... More

Pro-Government Militias and Conflict  

Sabine C. Carey and Neil J. Mitchell

Pro-government militias are a prominent feature of civil wars. Governments in Colombia, Syria, and Sudan recruit irregular forces in their armed struggle against insurgents. The United ... More

Protest and Contentious Action  

Mario Quaranta

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The field of protest and contentious action is massive. Numerous studies have focused on the determinants of such behavior, among which are grievances and deprivations, resources, ... More

Protest and Music  

Sumangala Damodaran

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The relationship between music and politics and specifically that between music and protest has been relatively under-researched in the social sciences in a systematic manner, even if ... More

Public Administration of the European Union  

Jarle Trondal

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
In a multilevel governance system such as the European Union (EU) policy processes at one level may create challenges and dilemmas at lower levels. Multilevel governance involves a ... More

Public Diplomacy and Foreign Policy  

Atsushi Tago

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Public ... More

Public Opinion on Foreign Policy Issues  

Richard C. Eichenberg

Scholars and governments are interested in four sets of questions concerning public opinion on foreign policy and national security policy. First, what do public opinion polls measure? How ... More

Public Service Broadcasting, Hard News, and Citizens’ Knowledge of Current Affairs  

Toril Aalberg and Stephen Cushion

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Public service broadcasters are a central part of national news media environments in most advanced democracies. Although their market positions can vary considerably between countries, ... More

Punishment and Political Philosophy  

Jesper Ryberg

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
The punishment of criminal offenders constitutes a topic that has for many years received comprehensive attention, both in narrower academic circles and in broader public debate. This is ... More

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