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Foreign Aid as Foreign Policy Tool  

Clair Apodaca

The majority of countries around the world are engaged in the foreign aid process, as donors, recipients, or, oftentimes, both. States use foreign aid as a means of pursuing foreign policy ... More

Foreign-Imposed Regime Change  

Dan Reiter

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
International actors sometimes force targeted states to change their governments, a process known as Foreign-Imposed Regime Change (FIRC). This foreign policy tool serves as a surprisingly ... More

Foreign Policy Learning  

Guy Ziv

An improved understanding of foreign policy learning necessitates a clarification of what foreign policy learning is, who learns, and how such learning occurs. Cognitive and social ... More

Gender Inequality and Internal Conflict  

Erika Forsberg and Louise Olsson

Prior research has found robust support for a relationship between gender inequality and civil war. These results all point in the same direction; countries that display lower levels of ... More

Gender-Sensitive Parliaments  

Sonia Palmieri

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. While ... More

Global Governance in Foreign Policy  

Álvaro Mendez

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Global governance is a story of human agency confronting the existential challenge of the seismic shift in the international system that is called globalization. Neither phenomenon is yet ... More

Information and Civil Unrest in Dictatorships  

Elizabeth Ann Stein

Considering incidents that make headline news internationally, given the modern information and communication technology revolution, the facility of citizens to rapidly mobilize represents ... More

Military Defection and the Arab Spring  

Risa A. Brooks

The protests that began in Tunisia in December 2010, and quickly spread across the Arab world, have drawn significant attention to the impact of militaries and coercive institutions on ... More

National Secession  

Philip G. Roeder

National secession seeks to create a new sovereign state for a nation residing on its homeland that is currently located inside another sovereign state. This goal distinguishes national ... More

High-Value Natural Resources and Transparency: Accounting for Revenues and Governance  

Levon Epremian, Päivi Lujala, and Carl Bruch

The increase in demand and prices of most high-value natural resources over the past five decades has resulted in massive income gains for resource-abundant countries. Paradoxically, many ... More

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