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Analytical Marxism  

Nicholas Vrousalis

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Marxists believe that an understanding of human society presupposes an understanding of the nature of the production of its material surplus and the nature of control over that surplus. ... More

A Revisionist Perspective on Framing Effects  

Jiawei Liu and Dietram A. Scheufele

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
There is a dichotomy in framing research that can be traced back to its multidisciplinary origins in psychology and sociology. Definitions of framing rooted in psychology are concerned ... More

Arms Control and Arms Reductions in Foreign Policy  

Harald Mueller

Arms control is a strategy by governments to overcome the security dilemma with institutionalized cooperation. It comes in three versions, arms control proper, with stability as the main ... More

Audience Costs, News Media, and Foreign Policy  

Ross A. Miller

Online publication date:
May 2016
“Audience costs” represent situations where domestic audiences impose penalties on leaders for failed policies. This phenomenon has risen to a prominent position in the study of politics ... More

Austria and the European Union  

Paul Luif

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Austria was occupied at the end of World War II by the four Allies, but in contrast to Germany the four powers left in 1955—the condition being its declaration of permanent neutrality, on ... More

Authenticity and Sustainability in Responsible Tourism  

Jane Carnaffan

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Tourism ... More

Autocracy  

Erica Frantz

Dictatorships have dominated global politics for hundreds of years, from the pharaohs of Egypt to the absolute monarchs of Europe. Though democracy has since spread to much of the world, ... More

The Balance of Power in World Politics  

Randall L. Schweller

Online publication date:
May 2016
The balance of power—a notoriously slippery, murky, and protean term, endlessly debated and variously defined—is the core theory of international politics within the realist perspective. A ... More

The Baltic States in the European Union  

Tanel Kerikmäe

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Basic Income  

Simon Birnbaum

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The idea that states should provide a means-tested guaranteed minimum income for citizens who are unable to meet their basic needs is widely shared and has been a central component in the ... More

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