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Foreign Aid as Foreign Policy Tool  

Clair Apodaca

The majority of countries around the world are engaged in the foreign aid process, as donors, recipients, or, oftentimes, both. States use foreign aid as a means of pursuing foreign policy ... More

Foreign-Imposed Regime Change  

Dan Reiter

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
International actors sometimes force targeted states to change their governments, a process known as Foreign-Imposed Regime Change (FIRC). This foreign policy tool serves as a surprisingly ... More

Foreign Policy Belief Systems and Operational Code Analysis  

Akan Malici

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Henry ... More

Foreign Policy in Multicultural Societies  

Christopher Hill

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Scholarship on the domestic sources of foreign policy has focused on parties, interest groups, and a generalized notion of public opinion, but it has neglected the societal dimension. This ... More

Foreign Policy Leadership in the Global South  

Andrea Grove

Online publication date:
May 2017
Why do leaders make foreign policy decisions that often appear irrational or engage in major reversals of previous policy to the extent that observers wonder at their calculations? The ... More

Foreign Policy Learning  

Guy Ziv

An improved understanding of foreign policy learning necessitates a clarification of what foreign policy learning is, who learns, and how such learning occurs. Cognitive and social ... More

Foreign Policy Mistakes  

Akan Malici

Online publication date:
May 2017
Syria is in tatters. A brutal dictator, vicious terrorist groups, and a raging civil war have led to the death of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of millions. Given the ongoing ... More

Foundations of Rivalry Research  

David R. Dreyer

Online publication date:
May 2017
Rivalry is pervasive in many areas of life. Though rivalry is not isolated to international politics, interstate rivalries are particularly important given their conflict propensities and ... More

The Founding Treaties of the European Union and Their Reform  

Finn Laursen

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Today’s European Union (EU) is based on treaties negotiated and ratified by the member states. They form a kind of “constitution” for the Union. The first three treaties, the Treaty of ... More

Fractionalization and Civil War  

Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Civil wars have becoming increasingly complex in the last 50 years, the role of fragmentation in contemporary civil wars needs to be addressed. Two primary dimensions of fractionalization ... More